Calibrations for grain quality assessments are the specific equations that instruments use to predict (compute) quality traits from the "raw" data (numeric representations of sample weight, temperature, dielectric constant, optical properties, etc.) that instruments produce. For a given instrument type, the form of the equation is pre-determined, and the "calibration" consists of the coefficients (numbers) that are used in the equation (with the grain-dependent data) to compute the final result. Calibration coefficients are usually compressed and encoded to minimize storage requirements and avoid inadvertent or intentional alterations.

GIPSA develops and evaluates official calibrations to meet new official inspection needs and issues calibrations as part of the process of implementing new official inspection methods. In addition, GIPSA continually reviews the accuracy that official instruments are providing through official calibrations, and develops and issues updated calibrations when accuracy can be improved.

The two most significant areas of official calibration development are official moisture meter calibrations and official near-infrared (NIR) calibrations.